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Publication: Internet Tutor
CSS Basics Part 2

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                    THE INTERNET TUTOR
                     January 18, 2007

This week...

- Webmaster Tip: CSS Basics, continued from last week
- Surfin' the Web: The Darwin Awards
- Software Spotlight: Patience
- The Oddball Wall: Out Of This World
- Computer Tip: Print Font Samples

I'll admit I was getting a little spoiled by a warm winter. 
I live in Wisconsin, the frozen tundra as they say, but 
almost all winter it's been in the 30's and even in the 
40's in the daytime. The temperature hasn't dipped below 
zero yet, and we'd usually have several below zero days 
by now. I didn't even have any snow in my yard. 

A cold front moved in today though. It's so cold...

...(and they shouted) How cold is it?

It's so cold that when my sister called today, the phone 

brrr..ring  brrr...ring  brrr...ring  :o)

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WEBMASTER TIP - CSS Basics, continued from last week

Note: In code examples I add a period after each left arrow
bracket so the code can be viewed in all e-mail programs. 
If you copy and paste, be sure to remove the periods or it 
won't work. 

CSS can be applied in three ways: inline styles, embedded 
styles, or external styles. Before going into that though, 
here are just a few things you can do with CSS: 

- Set different page margins for all sides of your page.
- Set font size for any text element to the exact height 
  you want, no more preset size limitations. 
- You can highlight single words, entire paragraphs, 
  headings or even
  individual LETTERS with different background colors.
- Overlap text to make logo-type headers without making 
- Colored scrollbars!
- Precise positioning of elements.
- Borders, border styles, backgrounds, margins, and padding 
  can be set for any HTML element.
- Set the font for whole tables, no need to recode a font 
  into each table cell.
- Make the first letter of each paragraph different, set 
  letter spacing, change the space between lines of text, 
  and much, much more!

Now let's look at how those different styles are used: 

- Inline Styles -
An inline style rule is coded into an HTML tag within the 
flow of your source code. The purpose of inline styles is 
to allow you to override an embedded or linked style rule. 
For example, you may have a rule that specifies H1 headings 
should be the color blue. If you have a place on your page 
where you want an H1 heading in red, an inline style rule 
allows you to override an embedded or linked style rule. 
To override an embedded or linked style, an inline style 
must be coded into each HTML element each time you want to 
override the embedded or linked style. 

- Embedded Styles -
Embedded styles are set in the HEAD section of your web 
page. Similar to an inline style rule, embedded styles 
allow you to override the rules of a linked style sheet. 
The difference is that with an embedded rule, you don't 
have to create a rule with each use of an HTML element. 
An H1 heading given the color red in an embedded style 
rule will render the H1 heading in red every time you use 
it on the page with the embedded style, without having to 
code the rule into each heading tag as you must do with 
inline rules. 

- Linked Styles -
Linked styles are the least important in the cascading 
order*, but the most powerful! A linked style is simply 
a link placed in the HEAD section of your web page to a 
separate file containing your style rules. The advantage 
of linked styles is that you can change that one remote 
file, and have that change reflected on every page of 
your site that links to the remote CSS file. Any or all 
methods of implementing CSS can be used on the same page. 

* The cascading order determines which style rule the 
browser is to follow if an element has conflicting style 

...to be continued.

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SURFIN' THE WEB - The Darwin Awards

Named in honor of Charles Darwin, the father of evolution, 
the Darwin Awards commemorate those who improve the human 
gene pool by removing themselves from it, basically through 

These are the 2006 nominees. Hurry, you can vote for your 
favorites, but I don't know how long the voting is open 
before they close it and award (posthumously, of course) 
the winners. 

The Darwin Awards 

          GopherCentral's Question of the Week

Should impeachment proceedings be brought against President 

Please take a moment to share your opinion, visit: 
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Patience is a free solitaire card game, actually it's over 
200 card games, including Klondike, Freecell, Spider, Yukon 
and a ton more. If you play a new game each day of the week 
you won't play them all by the end of June. 

That ought to keep you busy for a while!

The Game of Patience 

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THE ODDBALL WALL - Out Of This World

On this day in 1644, puzzled Pilgrims in Boston reported 
America's 1st UFO sighting. And you thought it was a 
recent phenomena. Today's quiz is out of this world. 

1) I'll start you off with an easy one...what does the 
   acronym UFO most commonly refer to in the context of 
   the Boston UFO sighting?
a. Unknown Foreign Object
b. Unidentified Flying Object
c. Unique False Observation

2) In the now classic movie, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, 
   how far from home was the stranded alien that wanted to 
   phone home? 
a. 3 million miles  b. 3 million light years  c. asparagus

3) Many people believe aliens are visiting the Earth every 
   day. Almost all of these folks refer to the same types 
   of aliens. Which one of the following alien species is 
   NOT one of the common alien species they claim is 
   visiting our little blue marble? 
a. grays   b. reptilians   c. dorbians

4) What newly discovered dwarf galaxy is the nearest galaxy 
   to our own Milky Way galaxy?
a. Canis Major   b. Andromeda   c. Pegasi 51

5) The galaxy mentioned in the previous question is about 
   25,000 light years away from our own solar system. How 
   far is a light year?
a. almost 6 million miles
b. almost 6 billion miles
c. almost 6 trillion miles

6) Our galaxy is about 100,000 light years across. In other 
   words, if you started at one edge of the Milky Way and 
   traveled to the other edge at the speed of light, it 
   would take you 100,000 years to make the trip. To put 
   that distance in perspective, how long would it take you 
   to travel from the Earth to the moon at the speed of 
a. 1.3 seconds   b. 1.3 months   c. 1.3 years

7) The stars you see in the night sky are really other suns 
   within our Milky Way galaxy, similar to our own sun. How 
   many stars do most scientists estimate are in our galaxy?
a. 200-400 million   b. 200-400 billion   c. 200-400 trillion

8) Each of those stars could be have planets rotating 
   around them just like the Earth and other planets 
   revolve around our Sun. In addition, scientists estimate 
   there are hundreds of billions of other galaxies in the 
   known Universe, with some "super galaxies" having 
   trillions of stars. Each of those could have solar 
   systems as well. How likely is it that life exists 
   elsewhere in the Universe? 
a. no way, we're alone in the universe
b. there's about a 50/50 chance of life elsewhere
c. it's almost a statistical certainty there's life 

And now for one that's sure to have you seeing things... 

9) About how many UFO sightings are reported each year? 
a. over 70,000   b. about 7,000   c. less than 700 

Answers below, here's the scoring:

9 correct: Perfection!
7-8 correct: Outstanding
5-6 correct: Very Good
2-4 correct: Fairly Fair
0-1 correct: Turn the TV off


1) b. Unidentified Flying Object
2) b. 3 million light years
3) c. dorbians
4) a. Canis Major
5) c. almost 6 trillion miles
6) a. 1.3 seconds
7) b. 200-400 billion
8) c. it's almost a statistical certainty there's life 
9) a. over 70,000


COMPUTER TIPS - Print Font Samples

Rather than using your computer to view font samples, you 
can easily print font samples without make special pages. 

1) Click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, 
and then double-click Fonts. 

2) Double-click the icon for the font you want to print. 

3) Click Print on the sample page that appears. 

Note: To select more than one font, press and hold down the 
CTRL key, and then click each of the fonts you want, then 
right-click one of them and choose Print. To print all your 
fonts, press and hold the shift key and click the first and 
last font, then right-click one and choose Print. 
Unfortunately, it isn't as automated as it could be. You 
will have to acknowledge each print request. 

I keep my font printouts in a three-ring binder by my desk 
for reference. If you don't have that many fonts this 
probably isn't a good tip for you, but I've got thousands 
of fonts, not installed, but in a separate folder where I 
can temporarily install them as needed. Having too many 
fonts installed slows down your computer. Having a print 
out of the fonts you have but don't have installed is a 
very handy reference. 

To print fonts that aren't installed just go to the folder 
where you have the fonts saved and double-click the icon. 
The same window from the instructions above should open, 
allowing you to print uninstalled fonts as well. 


Until next week, ponder these words of Michael Garrett 
Marino: A love affair with knowledge will never end in 

Have an interesting day, Simon

Questions? Comments? Email me at: Email Your Comments

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